Female violence into schoolenvironment: research on given event in a educational institution in bogota
by Torres Castro Carmen Beatriz, Univsersidad Catolica de Columbia, Barbara Yadira García Sánchez, Univsersidad Catolica de Columbia

Theme : International Journal on Violence and School, n°4, December 2007

Female school violence is an issue having an effect on school life, its manifestations into this space have been increasingly growing and made evident the imperative need about analyzing it through its characterization as a mean allowing make clear its impact on familiar, school and neighborhood environment. So, it was used a methodological design of a qualifying and sharing shape, based on Familiar Education Core and widespread violence prevention in school context, NEF, where fourteen girls from eighth to tenth graders, along with a coordinator of a District Educational Institution, managed the phenomenon as researchers, based on different sceneries (subject, family, school, neighborhood) and on given faces (pioneer meetings, tours, shifts and changes) dealt through sessions. At the end of the process several intervention propositions were built through projects contributing to improve personal researchers life, institutional environment and school, family and neighborhood living together. English text.

Keywords : school, violence, gender.
PDF file here.
Click on the title for see the text.


In response to the need of systematizing the political, social and economical process inside which our country lives and where the educational institution isn’t alien, in front of the request of a new generation of students and the pressing need of intervention on an increasingly doubtful situation, it’s essential to face the school violence issue as a phenomenon going beyond the school walls, projected into the environment along with worrying consequences on the actors because of aggression events seldom far from school life itself.
Some explanation of increasing female violence at school can be given through next elements: violent facts manifestation where teens are protagonists is proportional to general female aggression increase focused to other social spaces representing 43% in the last year, and have clearly emerged through personal injuries on face, neck or arms (26.15%), familiar violence (17.78%), and rebelliousness (4.68%) (District Educational Institution (IED]], 2004)
Female violence subtle expressions featured in social shutting out, harassment and slander, have been progressively decreasing to more explicit ways as insults (30%), threats (25%) and physical attacks including personal injuries (32%) (IED 2004).
Trianes (2000) points out the aggressive actions inflicted by teens in 13% contrasted with 26.4% of male participation. In fact, as she herself assets, women behavior in practice of violence is related to the action of “talking unfairly about others”, that’s to say, the use of psychological violence as a very strong feature, used among teens.
In national leveled studies on female violence, reference is made on criminal behaviors which, according to journal El Tiempo (May 18, 2004) are related to violent actions linked to homicide, personal injuries, simple kidnapping, intrafamiliar violence, robbery, swindle, revolt and narcotic traffic, their manufacture and carriage, with an increase of 43% of young women involvement; this obviously refers to social situations, though undiscovered at school environment or, at least not denounced.
Some of aggressive events becoming insults, physical or word attacks ending in personal injuries, constant maltreatment to own mates, by word or physically, nicknames, common quarrels or hurt on school equipment, but mainly decisions made through behaviors against rules on living together, are strong indicators about increase of female violence into school (IED Institution, 2003)
Thus, female school violence becomes one among many ways for common violence injuring the country, along with its severe outcomes, and can be seen s a product in a row of events linked to dysfunctional human relations inwards family and society as a wider space highly affecting institutional school environment, because of resulting dynamics and how it is taken on by protagonists, as aggressors or victims.
According to Vargas (1999) the source for female school violence has to be sought in first socialization experiences where “core and importance of human relations emerge” in which the individual lays the foundations of primary pillars of highest feelings as solidarity and love (p.167).
Family is the affective ambit devoted to offer the first vital elements in affectionate building which afterwards will root in social relations experienced at school.
By the other way, according to Parra (1991), the role played by women in today’s society is highly involved in family’s life. In fact, their mandatory double role as workers and mothers, takes her to perform sometimes strict attitudes, and their absence from home as an authority symbol has repercussions on children rearing who, if feeling themselves abandoned and alone because of the loss of contact, look for different life options, the most of the times unfavorable for their personal formation.
According to Cajiao (1999) in a society as Colombia,with big violence risks, where regard for the other has been lost, it isn’t strange to find at school a small copy. It isn’t strange to experience a school environment full with aggression, violent and coercive moods, with armed gangs and painful incidents caused among schoolmates, the most due to male students.
First researches on school violence phenomenon were carried out by Illich, Mandel and some other scholars in the last sixties, but with no so significant results. Such researchers argued about roots of school structure from its psychological, philosophical and political foundations sponsoring radical changes suitable for school, and proposed its vanishing as a formal structure. (Parra et al.(1998)
Through seventies Norwegian Dan Olweus as a pioneer, made some approaches to the phenomenon, and has been since then engaged to its description, delimitation and definition for afterwards proposing intervention means helping to canalize and decrease aggression forecasting behaviors among students what has allowed school community to face the problem, sure of its capability for seeking means for diminishing phenomenon incidence inside the schoolroom and the school as a whole.
For Thornton, Craft, Dahlberg, Lynch, Baer, (2000), through the eighties and nineties, various European and American countries were compelled to push ahead with relevant researches on school violence in order to review their legislation for allowing means to take control on the phenomenon, which in these days, was already recovering victims.
Latin America undergoes this problem along with marginal and social injustice conditions represented in dereliction, misery and low learning levels which have contributed to juvenile violence and their rebound on school institution. (Garcia, M 2003)
Colombia, a country that through the years has undergone deep crises, isn’t far from school violence phenomenon. The experience of so deep social uneaveness, abandonment, misery, limited access to the basic education, within strict power structures and steady values transformation, has generated in its process towards development, ways of interpersonal relation that suggest an intolerant, authoritarian and violent path among the most depressed sectors.
With this world and local run into school violence research, this problem, as an increasing phenomenon, is made clear, condition that has worried governments, academic and scientific communities, parents and teachers heavily looking for action lines in order to stop its incidence and importance into the school environment.
One can conclude that school isn’t absent from social dynamics and in some way all processes lived into a wide frame of some country’s life, directly attain to it as an institution to which special problems come together but having a strong effect on daily life of educational actors, on their formation process and on the possible role to accomplish as members of a society that demands them the least living together patterns and due respect to their pairs.
Likewise, through this historical tour we can see how female school violence phenomenon is an almost forgotten issue, when only a reduced group of researcher countries and scholars like Olweus (1998) and Trianes (2000) have shyly devoted to it but as something not so important.
About Colombia, after an exhaustive and bibliographical search, we haven’t found researches on this issue, situation so strange because being true the work of researchers like Parra and others (1998) who have faced the problem, they haven’t analyzed thoroughly what goes on inside a school with aggressor female teens.
Within this thinking and once reviewed the art works situation reporting world and local level studies, bibliographic foundations are undertaken, in order to put in evidence theoretical references that explain violence phenomenon from its most important conceptualizations, as follows:
According to Deas and Gaitán (1995) violence is a phenomenon showing different aspects, according to the ambit where is developed and is seen as “those individual or group actions producing some others’ death, or injuring their physical and moral integrity” (p. 163).
Researches as those of Llorente and Escobedo (2002) proved that violence can have their source in family experiences associated to impulsiveness or home maltreatment, bringing as a consequence the acquisition of aggressive behaviors which eventually are able to appear in different social spaces from where school doesn’t escape, given the characteristics multiplicity and the different ways of being gathered in its space.
Depending on the appearance form inside the various social ambits, violence springs up into a double way, involving not only victims but also aggressors who in some way are expressing a certain position in front of tensions proper for conflict, where intolerance and acknowledgement, as stated by Camacho and Guzman (1990), play their role to produce some bounce effect inside social order and thus, as an “essentially human feature“, is a frequent element when you are beginning to overcome differences or when personal views or actors’ interests are imposed. (Camacho y Guzmán, 1990, p.16)
Spread violence effects into other social contexts like family and school become, according to Camacho & Guzman (1990), addressees of all the inherent elements that constitute violence. “Tensions, failures and compulsions” become starters for aggressive behaviors hurting both children and young people, and having an effect on behavior, causing a violence mood related to aggressive behaviors learned through social learning patterns which consequently can be identified as children/teens’ violence.
So, it’s fundamental to propose a critical analysis of circumstances able to generate young violence and underlying conflicts, given the need of searching them and identifying them with adolescents’ and youth behavior, as they are the clues for interpreting its meaning in exercise of authority and power, social control and effects of socio-historical legacy, as impellers of group conscience, and a mean for strengthening performances associated to the appearance of a contemporary young culture, sometimes showing violent behaviors (Villa, 1998).
Through researches on young violence (1996) suggested by Mattaini, Twyman, Chind and Lee, the need to face the issue is set up, in order to establish the influence of environmental events, rulings, imitation patterns and discrimination stimuli apt for having an effect on behavior, and give rise to violent actions in young people, additionally considering the existence of factors associated with environmental situations, like alcohol or drugs consumption, cocaine during gestation, all these phenomena able to determine the later relationship with parents or school performance, becoming thereby a direct way to aggression.
Mattaini et al. (2996),in their pattern concerning to the violent behavior explanation, define the violent act as an intentional way for hurting others physically through threat, in order to take control on a certain situation annoying to aggressor and whose goal is to diminish its occurrence. Nevertheless, this definition gives important outlines for designing intervention and prevention tools. What is suggested is that all patterns trying to explain young violence specially rely on risk and socio cultural factors interpretation favoring aggressive behaviors and the use of intervention strategies looking for violent behaviors transition to proactive ways for conflicts solution.
Social learning pattern proposed by Bandura (1978) states that the environment influence where the organism is located is a key component for identification of aggressive behavior, where learning happens as a response to imitation of patterns given inside family or school. In such spaces people acquire, step by step, through imitation, a board scale of learning models.
Attaining to aggression, Bandura (1978) thinks this to be an emotional condition where hate feelings along with a strong wish of hurting the other come together. In that meaning and in order to offer an explanation to violence through its model, he sets up that some behavior patterns are socially rewarded, stating that an aggressive action is linked to multiple social, situational, personal factors and cognitive processes.
In relation to violence, social learning theory thinks that aggressiveness comes from two complementary processes in which learning by imitation or modeling participates, so, we can see aggressive behaviors acquired inside families arise through significant observation of patterns, and their maintenance is given as a consequence of operant conditioning.
For Bandura (1978) violence doesn’t arise spontaneously, it is rather a causal response growing when given social environment conditions where a behavior learned among conflict situations can be present, and in this way we can see the influence of a surrounding environment as an unleashing factor for aggressive behaviors from children and teens who receive the direct influence of patterns assumed by their parents in front of conflict, as an important antecedent in young violence production, which can be understood as a way of reaction or an interrelation learned from familiar and social models of imitation.
Contemporary researchers have defined school violence as a multi-causal phenomenon and a mechanism that adolescents have used for solving their own existential emptiness, their lack of satisfaction and deprivation of hope, inside school and out from it.
Castañeda (1999) and Fernández (1999) think this type of violence can be understood as a school highly important trouble, because it spreads in the daily living together and affects social structures on which educational work is constructed, and afterwards it isn’t any more an isolated fact for becoming a problematic and interpersonal structure where students participate from different views according to their own activity, as an agent or victim or spectator, giving some complexity grade to the phenomenon, which avoids to deal with it through quick action strategies.
As defined by Parra et al.(1988), school violence is some form of youth organization extended to school, that supposes spaces creation where physical and psychological aggression is experienced as a natural interaction way that shows deficiencies as on ethical formation apparent in conflict relationships lacking meaning or on aggressive behaviors.
Taking into account allusions on school violence by some researchers as Olweus (1998), Debarbieux (2001) and Trianes (2000), for the purpose of this research, school violence is viewed as set of multi- causal phenomena, apparent through the interchange of aggressive and repeated actions associated to risky factors generators, as learning patterns in conflict solution, some personality characteristics, a strong temperament and reaction capacity or a nasty temper, abandonment, maltreatment and violence inside family, which come together into students life altering their social behavior and interpersonal relationships in a meaningful way.
Thus, school female violence, as to this research and for the NEF group, is viewed as a phenomenon that besides its own characteristics fitting with school violence, additionally rely on active and direct adolescents participation finally coming to aggressively solution of differences with their own pairs.
Trying to understand female violence dynamics at school it’s necessary to link it so with manliness and femininity concepts, as roles played by them into different ambits of someone’s life. According to Estrada (1997), gender concept fits with a social construction in which reference is made on peculiarities of each of sexes, from which are derived patterns and social institutions and cultural imaginaries attributors of manliness or femininity characteristics as a subjective process through which “personal identity” is determined and built through history. However, and without omission of a look on masculinity, this research is focused to analyzing the idea of femininity associated with school violence as a relational category meaning mainly power requests, and their effect on teens behavior. (p.34)
School, because of its present dynamics, comes to form a part of social institutions favoring some desirable behaviors for been assumed by men and women in own roles fulfillment. According to Pouncet (1996), through hidden or clear curricula application there’s some insistence on giving “a feeble and partial gender image” where differences and unevenness related to the issue and found in patriarchal cultures are maintained.
So, so called “gender violence” can be set up, according to these authors, as a phenomenon displaying different expressions and intensities, depending on historical moment or circumstances or conflict individual features, without putting aside nor personal characteristics of protagonists, nor social learning patterns and context, all playing a key role when crossing the borders that define the way how each one of genders deal with their differences and resolve conflicts.
According to Debardieux (2004) “researchers are sure at least about one thing: there isn’t a unique factor but a complex set of them, linked, for example, to familiar situation, socioeconomic conditions and educational centers pedagogic style” where kids spend the most of their time. (p.2)
As pointed out in above paragraphs, approach to associated factors have to be accomplished from a double view: risk factors, as those generating violent situations and highly reactive and aggressive behaviors, and protection ones, as those delaying re-agents or maintaining proactive behaviors to a suitable conflict solution.
However, this approach, possible for a framework of multi-level patterns and influence circles, can’t ruin its correspondence with Familiar Education Nucleus (NEF) because this is the privileged focus through the research pursuit.
Above considerations worked as a foundation for setting up next questions: What characterizes kids who participate actively into school violence? What motivates adolescents in a District Educational Institution to behave aggressively and violently? Which is the frequency and intensity for violent facts appearance through the working day? Which is the dynamic, frequency and impact of aggressive events possibly showing the existence of a female violence phenomenon inner to institution? Which factors generating risk and protective ones are important for understanding phenomenon of female school violence? Which is the role played by different educational actors in front of school violence problem? What prevention means are suitable for channeling female school aggression to values formation such as respect, responsibility, autonomy and construction of life projects fitting with reality? What kind of student is the most hurt and victimized through aggressive and violent behaviors from District Institution students? Is it possible to develop programs on intervention and prevention of female school violence appearing in a hidden way?

To characterize female school violence through its dynamics analysis, manifestations and associated factors, as a recurrent phenomenon surrounding a District Educational Institution.
Epistemological foundations

Specially for this process and given the phenomenon features we wish to ask for with a qualifying outlook, we have selected orientations of the phenomenological model, hermeneutical, because it offers spaces for daily events description corresponding to a given experience, allowing, by the other side, to face the phenomenon as a life experience, focused on the daily school life, and inquires as freely as possible from prejudice about its aim, trying to describe its meanings and the eventual significance for those who experience it.
Into this same direction we may consider research-action as an approach to the problem possibility, in order to characterize it, knowing its dynamic, while it’s possible bringing out some reflection in depth along with some teens who have been involved in it by different reasons, and to design with them some following plans helping to get a global phenomenon sight and the suitable ways in search of intervention strategies focused on school reality.
It’s important therefore to design outlines for a methodological model allowing the researcher to count on active participation of the selected sample, so approach to problem be done from experience itself of participants in the research, themselves describing the known world through their history of life, the way how they have thought about it and conceived it from their socialization processes conditioning comprehension of subjacent reasons for the observed phenomenon, and in this way make possible some approach to the problem, for putting it in shape and effectively intervene on it (Bonilla and Rodriguez (1997)


The study was performed according to the outlines for a qualitative research and the scheme of participant Action Research, through the model known as Familiar Education Nucleus (NEF), as a proposal of community work seeking not only strengthening social links and family relationships - school – but besides presented as a choice to school violence prevention, also when extended to family and neighborhood (Garcia.2003)
Using NEF into the school context, female violence phenomenon was faced as a need for spaces creation for reflection and growing sessions where violent behavior incidents were objectively analyzed through their different stages: Meetings, Exploratories, Trips, Displacements, Transformations and Sceneries (Subject, Family, Ward).

In order to set up the population involved in this research, students from 8th, 9th and 10th grades were called, aged from thirteen to seventeen, once involved in female violence events in a City Educational Institution whose general relationships are related to the presence of inner family and community difficulties 22.5%, socialization processes 45%, on school aspect 77.6% and personality features 90%.
From this call a students sample was selected of 14 female people aged from 14 to 17, attending 8th, 9th and 10th grades with aggression and threat incidents, users of affective blackmail, disqualification and gossip, solving their conflicts through confrontation and frequently hitting themselves. 90% has showed aggressive behaviors inside the classroom, 2% has been involved indirectly in aggressive situations, with a high aggressive behaviors repertoire, though not always used, steadily submitted to risk factors coming from family, school or neighborhood situation. They show high self esteem levels, having a good academic performance and responsibility faced on their class activities.


1. These were the used tools: field daily recorders, instruments for observed issues registration and systematization that allowed to know the real experienced situation during and after each session, where personal experiences were described so as the effect brought into participants by the fieldwork itself and how they perceived it.
2. Social maps are for Rodriguez et al. (1996) a kind of tools allowing to locate on a drawing the social, spatial and temporal dimensions related to places, happenings and relationships. They were useful into the investigation because they allowed to put in context the issue under study in a given place and time.
3. It was necessary to locate geographically on special maps the physical institution context from where emerged female school violence research, along with its environment. Its building was made from traveling through important places in each one of the sceneries, with support of plans and drawings performed by the group in each one of sessions.
4. Temporal maps presented in different stages of the model let precisely state “temporary dimensions identified through participants life and the sequence that has recorded in its time some event which afterwards can become an associated factor to phenomenon under research.
5. Other valid tools for research were diagrams as they became technical resources for showing, as an illustration, complexity of studied phenomenon. Their use was suitable for identification of relationships between small events and how they interact in shaping the wholeness. They showed besides the magnitude of associated factors or their features.
6. Notebooks became a key analysis element. As personal documents, they allowed to keep the record of all happenings, thoughts, expressions and feelings that NEF adolescents lived through the process.
7. Work agendas reported the development of each one of sessions, letting an exact organization of data collection and helped in a very high level the researcher because they offered an idea of organization and sequence through the approach to phenomenon.
8. Some items as flowgrams, graffitis, boards, comparison charts, open questions, due to their usefulness for agendas development, were important in data collection and used in each one of sessions, depending on the kind of information helped to be obtained.
9. Mechanic and register devices let seize the most of information “bringing raw material about what happens in a certain social scenery”. Because of their features they became a very useful non reactive measure for being suitably applied to a given reality. (Schwartz and Jacobs, 1984, p.116)


Once drawn the project and being clear theoretical referents, we came to field work. Its application through three months allowed the development of foreseen agendas, according to stage and scenery for needed data collection, leading to embody research in a qualifying style inside focus of Participant Action Research and the pattern of Family Education Nucleus (NEF)
During the development of NFE, a set of ethnographic actions were undertaken which let researchers to face the problem from a phenomenological view but starting from personal experience, trying to understand outstanding characteristics of female behavior possibly linked to violence or to conflicts solution in an aggressive way, from different sceneries.
During NEF, the same as in this report, pseudonymous were used for protection of adolescents’ identity working in the research and of all people who provided information. Each one of participants selected without restraint, and considered able to identify her, according to their preferences and affinity.
It was also taken in account the opinion of others who, although weren’t living directly the research process, their contribution was determinant in view of own experience on experienced violence facts, or kinship with NEF participants, or because of contact with adolescents protagonists in violence situations or in conflicts that ended in aggression.
Obtained data in each work session through above quoted instruments, represented the way of establishing codes and verbal data chains to join together thinking, feeling, attitudes, values and practices related to the issue of female violence inside school ambit.
Obtained data arrangement became an information source on social context where interactions are expressed; the participants’ group opinions related to the construction of significances and the ambit of studied problem presentation (Rodriguez et al.)
The process of general analysis of data showed the sequence developed in each session, becoming the first stage corresponding to data collection, according to Rodriguez et al. (1996)
Given the great amount of collected data it was necessary to go to second phase attaining to their selection, in order to make it inclosing and manageable, caring to take most relevant ones in front of the phenomenon explanation.
A subsequent stage was data arrangement into an organized way allowing to build relationships, to bring to light hidden elements and to know the phenomenon structure.
Cards elaboration with their own category provided a special organization to collected information, which, arranged in this way, led to elements evidence needed for goals achievement, and thus each category allowed corresponding arrangement according to sceneries and stages.
Finally we came to conclusions obtention and verification in terms of understanding and acknowledgement of school and social reality linked to female school violence.
The whole research process forecasts, in a short or middle term for IDE, to take part in a suitable way in neutralization of aftermaths of factors generating violence and strengthening protection factors at personal, family, school and community levels.


Scenery Subject

It’s possible to meet characteristic personality traits making predictable that given behaviors lead kids to act in an aggressive mood, for instance reactions in front of conflict situations, with a high level of aggressiveness bound up with bad temper, the self-punishment and uncontrolled behaviors that were described by 79% of adolescents taking their part in the research.
The role that father and mother image has played into personal life of young people is significant; in 98% of the events the mother faced her daughters breeding having to work at the same time for getting them acceptable life conditions. So, their daughters make, in their words, a recognition of the role played by mothers for helping them to excel.
The travel also involved asking about emotional and corporal marks acquired by participants in NEF through aggression events, as a feature of memories of traumatic experiences lived in childhood or through adolescence; during this observation 100% of adolescents described maltreatment signs and beating, invisible at work place but that, at some moment of young girls life were an additional sign of a beating that somebody inflicted them or some combat hand to hand with close people, their parents, brothers or sisters, or friends.
It was also possible to verify that there is concepts clearness on proactive form how we have to react in conflict situations, letting concepts such as self-esteem, justice and behavior projection on dynamics cause-effect become stronger; however, what isn’t so congruous with managed concepts is just the way how we act in such situations, because when you have to act in front of incitement, these ideas on “dialog importance” or on “image that becomes lost” it isn’t enough the meaning that the group of researchers gives to it, and the foreseen reaction is far from pacific solutions.
The life project became for NEF members a possibility to assume behavior changes showing among their objectives to be manager of a culture of respect and tolerance getting better relationships among adolescents in conflict and in the daily life of the Institution.
To have clear ideals and a suitable life project possibly mean for adolescents participating in the research to go through proactive behaviors where conflict is assumed as a part of everyday life.

Scenery Family

It’s usually possible to state that families fitting with social imaginary were found into strata where people is ranked, some being composed by primary nuclei integrated by parents and children, and among others extended family influence takes a preferential place in youth and childhood rearing and education.
It was found into domestic environment an events’ range going from constant quarrels among brothers and sisters to problems in conjugal relationship, so that life inside family becomes tense and loaded with customary problems highly affecting adolescent behavior.
When asked about parents conduct and the influence of couple relationships for acquisition of aggressive behaviors in adolescents in NEF group it was found the presence of a violent component when authority is brought to bear in front of couple and children. In 50% of reports, adolescents argue having been victims into such conflict situations where mothers are assaulted and so they themselves, because of their intervention in this confrontation.
Authoritarian patterns are recognized, going from parental authority in a given grade of rigidity but also with dialog and confidence whenever necessary, seeming that though parents’ relationships don’t work so well, according to their stories and the parental image doesn’t show a suitable profile for their education, some indicators of their participation exist. Kaoki, for example, describes his perception on the way how his progenitor exercises authority on her, according to the next quotation: “Now I respect my father because he’s my father, but not by additional reasons; my father is someone who has always acted in a wrong way; for him quarrel was always the way to put in order everything in life”. (Kaoki, session 8, September 10, 2004)
Cases in which extended family plays a key role for adolescents rearing were found where grandparents or uncles and aunts have taken care of their formation, due to special situations closely related to typical behaviors of a dysfunctional family where it was considered that who have directly assumed such a responsibility have acted under very much deteriorated links signifying aggressive relationships generating insecurity and fear because of lack of confidence to which were exposed 21% of adolescents, as Candela reports: “It isn’t right to say this because of verbal aggression. The statement is “do whatever you want; we never talk even for maybe saying good morning or insulting each other” (Candela, session 8, September 10, 2004)
It was found that familiar dynamic issue is mainly intervened by factors strongly altering familiar development inherent processes, among which history, interpersonal relationships, living together spaces, application of authority, parental behavior and attitudes and own home features, as clear signs of existence of risk factors into own family for acquisition of reactive conducts when it is time to solve conflicts.
Factors previously described acted as an important source of findings for the group because, when visualized those processes, it was found that in 100% of analyzed cases families work inside forecast parameters for the stratum defined in population for this research and participants, but with the unavoidable confrontation when there are different generations and views inside the same space.
The NEF team found that efficient communication lack is something daily endured inside home of every participant adolescents; they state the need of sharing experiences inside family environment and ask for the pressing need of an effective communication when admit through their stories that everything is solved at home through scream, as in the case of Impulsiva who states: “Dialog with my family is poor, everything is solved through scream” (Impulsiva, session 10, September 17, 2004)
Lack of reciprocal credibility and confidence was one of the items appreciated in reports, descriptions, interviews and situational analyses in 71% of events reviewed by NEF where, besides, an additional component appeared, the fact of parents producing all the information coming home on their daughters. This mechanism gives rise to outdistance inside relations between parents and daughters and refuses open dialog because in such cases the end is always quarrel and aggression. Piolin’s story is an example: “When gossips are told to my parents, they believe, aware of lies, and nag at me to injure” (Piolin, session 10, September 17, 2004)
Though unfaithfulness wasn’t a key factor, it is present in 29% of stories by adolescents in the research. Besides this phenomenon, it was found a close relationship with violence inside family.
Disagreement between word and work is a pattern of reiterative behavior related to authority exercise, and is present when social behavior indicators are given or they want to point out the way how given socially living together guidelines must be assumed. Such indicator was found in 43% of analyzed events.
Sexual violence is something related to personal integrity that plays a key role when patient is defending herself from the possibility of being attacked. This element was found only in one of the adolescents intermittently participating in NEF but who took a leading part in the most of aggression events among her mates. She draws her own experience as follows: “My father attempted to go too far with my older sister, he took home with him drunk friends and told them laying with my mother in the same bed” (Gatis, session 10, September 17, 2004)
The inadequate conflicts solution is a behavior pattern revealing that it is closely related to risk factors, in 100% of the studied events such a circumstance appeared and was worth of indication as a key element in problems reactive solution apt to lead to a violent ending.
To be aware on the crisis meant to stop for designing a project mainly looking for consolidating family stability, strengthening values such as respect, the ability for dialog and feelings expression because a confidence and change ambit is generated, giving rise to learning and the ability for dealing with differences and discords. In this way Kaoki states: “It’s needed been able to dialog with them so they take in account that each coming problem hurts us and mostly younger kids” (Kaoki, session 11, September 21, 2004)

Scenery School:

Into the proposed dynamics for examining the phenomenon inside the institution it was needed to define with NEF the violence constituent elements where these kids have taken a part, noticing this to be something recurrent, growing in quantity, frequency and number of restriction actions ending in verbal or physical aggression. A.I. Martínez, a teacher at the institution, in an interview for the research team states: “There are aggressive events around the institution due to threats, obscene words expression, where slaps in the face appear. Sometimes they come to throw themselves to the floor, punching there each other” (A.I.Martinez, personal communication, November 25, 2004)
It was found besides that in most events confrontation starts through school work, finishing in aggressions in nearby parks, with the provocative look from many friends and passers by, who sometimes assume active spectator attitudes encouraging or inciting them to a harder aggression. Next statement is an example: “These problems usually occur when going out from school, searched inside and gathering outer people” (Moticas, session 12, September 25, 2004)
Among described circumstances during identification work of events associated with female violence, threats are highlighted, undesirable glances, gossips, sweethearts, lack of tolerance and respect. “Some classmates insulted each other when going out and the only reason was because they threw a map to the floor, and also because they had some difference” (Gatica, session 12, September 25, 2004)
It’s characteristic in quarrels to begin with verbal aggressions represented in obscene words, lack of respect, irony use, sometimes accompanied by indictments and gibe; what next happens is confrontation in which clearly physical aggression appears and in the worst of events they report that their gangs or “parches” are ready to uphold them because they aren’t alone. “She said we might not annoy her because we didn’t know who was me and that she was going to send us her gang” (N. Valenzuela, personal communication, October 3, 2004). Sometimes this happens when just finished classes, or in breaks, or going out from school, because they use the appointment in near places as a challenge to solve their differences and what happens is that just arriving to the agreed place, a quarrel takes place.
Exploration stage was the mean for tracking how are experienced relationships at school and which of their mechanisms generate violence actions among students. Into the research group it was found that adolescents have very heavy affective loads that have indelibly marked them and their mood is mediated just by feelings and experiences acquired at other social spaces different from school, which, when crossing with behavioral circumstances into school ambit, let off aggressive behaviors.
It was also apparent that conflicts resulting in uproar appear more frequently among women and have a much more aggressive feature. “Lately I have realized that some people extremely hypocritical at the classroom…I have been next to grab this kid and hit her” (Y. Garzón, personal communication, October 6, 2004). By the other hand, in relationships woman-man there weren’t significant events suggesting the existence of a generalized violence between genders.
Another important finding is related to the kind of reaction once the crisis unleashed. Gatica says to this point: “they caught their hair, gave each other slaps and kicks” (session 12, September 25. 2004). However, students are aware that aggressive actions performed when being into a situation out of control, are highly injurious for their image.
Performing the pursuit to historical incidents inside the institution meant the identification of those involved in female school violence phenomenon into given times and spaces, for establishing with the highest accuracy, recurrence and impact generated into daily environment by violence incidents performed by NEF participants.
Talking about times with the study team, we tried to establish the suitable moments for presentation of hostile and physically aggressive events, looking for the most accurated identification of days and hours with the most vulnerability. For example in cohabitation at school recording, it became evident that the hour for going out, breaks between classes and weekends are the most propitious for confrontation because, generally, teachers presence is scarce.
On the specific issue of female violence we confirm that though resources for suitable actions in conflict incidents do exist, personal and family histories influence is definitive by behavioral models learned in order to suitably solve conflicts. Bellota makes this recognition when analyzing the school role on his rearing. “I believe that school has influenced on me in order to being able to solve problems in a good way” (Bellota, session 14, September 18, 2004). Despite this, she was involved in some situation characterized by frictions, insinuations and verbal aggression with another girl mate.
Identifying the most propitious places for violence encounters on the map of the school, young women pointed out classrooms, lavatories, halls, stairs in strategic locations that, because of their placement, don’t involve constant use by other institution people, however, sometimes it occurs wherever you are, the important thing is to show that you won’t give up, as stated by J. Salcedo: “When we were just coming home someone called to the door; at this moment I called her and told her ‘who looks for finds it’ and gave her a slap” (J. Salcedo, personal communication, September 15, 2004)
Reviewing behaviors between both sexes NEF found that dynamics for fight is the same, what changes is the used tool because here differences were found: girls use their nails as short stabbing arm, blows on the face and hauling others hair. “We started mutual maltreatment, slapping each other on our head and then we took hold from our hair and scratched each other” (Moticas, session 15, October 4, 2004)
By the other hand, male adolescents use contusive elements as stones, sticks or rings and in both cases fist, kick, insults and obscenities can be present. This is one of remarks in the record of living together found in the coordination office: “He attacked a mate giving him a knock on the face with a ring; there is an indictment because of personal injuries on his face”.
It was found that lacking the institution a significant sexist behavior, there are some situations inside the classroom where girls feel themselves offended as women, due to the way how some teachers and their schoolmates try to make them feel their superiority, mocking about role played by them inside classroom and at school. La krazy’s report is an example of such situations, declared by 45% of the group.
Sometimes, that teacher comes into the classroom and spends his time with boys exclusively, talking and talking with them and one listens disliking things; his comments perhaps have affected some classmates. (La krazy, session 14, September 28, 2004)
The research showed that there aren’t significant tensions between authority application and living together rules. Adolescent participant girls know that horizontal authority pattern is applied, where mediation and dialog allow agreements when faced conflict situations.
Into displacement stage it was asked about mind constructions and imaginaries that different educational agents have around female school violence phenomenon, trying to get an approach to risk factors, but from the way how are detected and read into school environment conflict incidents reaching aggression into institutional life frame.
For interviewed teachers, for example, school violence is a manifestation of aggressive attitudes with multiple reasons ranging from intolerance and lack of respect to others liberty, violation expressed through physical, verbal or psychological aggression, whose actors can be any member of educational community, building unpleasant school environments.

On specific issue attaining female school violence, 95% of interviewed teachers think it to be an increasing phenomenon, reiterative, arising by different reasons in which adolescents have been involved from their personal and familiar experience, and which is characterized by physical contact and verbal maltreatment, besides incitement and threat.
100% of adolescents’ mothers participating in NEF think that lack of knowledge and the way how problems are solved inside family has much to do with the way how their daughters assume aggressive behaviors; Piolin’s mother thinks this to be “a very complicated issue because we sometimes don’t know how to deal with difficult situations and almost always come to solve everything through violence” (E. Pérez, personal communication, November 22, 2004)
Another managed imaginary is related to cultural conceptions on each one of genders; it is considered that culturally men must be rude, strong and bold, but woman has been linked to traits of softness, tenderness and delicacy, a situation that has promoted discriminatory behaviors leading to her assumption of a passive role in conflicts solution.
Considering through the transformation stage prevention and intervention possibilities in female school violence dynamic became a need for NEF, which analyzed the phenomenon from school personal experience, determining the set of elements appeared as findings through process, in order to exactly determine procedures to be followed and to design strategies apt to bring to life a pedagogical project as a violence observer into educational ambit with gender perspective and that at the same time be involved in institutional educational project.
The project itself must hold the whole educational community and point to school reality transformation, towards educational behavior construction, free from aggression but over all must become a research project pointing to getting better everyday school life.

Scenery Neighborhood

Starting from meeting stage, the look on the neighborhood allowed the team group a general referent of their inhabitants’ life; three access lines were identified: physical structure, social problems and possibility of boarding eventual problems as elements linked to factors generating female violence.
In relation to first one of these lines attaining to physical structure, those with the most significant population concentration were taken as strategic points, which, due to their characteristics, have a strong impact on the neighborhood life, because of their work generation, or because they are entertainment areas or because they represent the existence of risk situations for their citizens but mainly for women.
Second access line to the dynamic of neighborhood life is that of social problems, due to the fact that they become useful indicators of risk factors linked to female school violence, given the outstanding on its inhabitants’ life.
NEF adolescents identified as social problems linked to this living together: insecurity, presence of gangs and bands in streets and parks, rumors and lack of respect among neighbors.
Third access line is referred to possibility to face problems already pointed out connecting them to risk factors, in order to set up, through some project intervention means, strengthening protection factors into neighborhood ambit. In this meaning Gatica states: “It’s possible to contribute with ideas and know what is failing in the neighborhood and what we want to happen there” (Gatica, session 18, October 14, 2004)
It was found among findings that in physical neighborhood structure and how everyday events occur, we can find violence signs eventually related to risk factors whenever carefully looking at life style reflected on daily community situations, aggressiveness resulted evident in 98% as a way for problems solution.
It was asked also about behavioral differences among men and women in front of the conflict, confirming that though male violence incidents are more frequent, aggression among women is harder because of the way they assume behaviors after confrontation, generally characterized through insistence of verbal aggression or psychological violence on victim.
NEF team also inquired on manners of appropriation of neighborhood space, starting from historical facts and physical environment use, as linking elements having influence on neighborhood culture shaping, and mainly the impact on women’ life.
Neighborhood dynamic has experienced shifts through times because own inhabitants mobility and country circumstances lead to different life styles; just the fact of Fontibon town becoming a neighborhood while before was a town, led to experience daily city situations fitting with women going out for work, having to distribute her time between work activities and those demanded by family life.
Events like quick population growing without control at all, presence of gangs and suspicious bands, insecurity, rumors among neighbors, are for team members the most significant obstacles because, as Mary states (session 21, October 26, 2004), “Someone becomes a victim of his own experience, because they give birth to conflicts hurting innocent people” All told before suggests new risk factors existence possibly associated with female violence.
Neighborhood dynamic shows existence of given circumstances generating violence among adolescents. Who took part in this study let verify through their thoughts how environmental everyday events have high influence on a constant defensive style. Relationships with neighbors, men attitudes and people concentration in given places can become good indicators of risk factors presence. Bombon refers in one of her stories: “They live hanging on others’ actions and that gives rise to conflict” (Bombon, session 21, October 26, 2004)
With relation to neighborhood dynamic and school environment, it was found that despite neighborhood circumstances giving rise to conflict as described by Candela: “Each one quarrels against each one, some because of rumors, some others because not paying debts and some just because they aren’t congenial to others” (Candela, session 21, October 26, 2004), school environment also brings significant elements altering neighbors’ life.
Despite ignorance about neighborhood, NEF prepared a neighborhood activities planner, realizing that almost through all months of the year local authorities make ready a set of integration strategies easing sound habits into community life. Twelve entertainment, cultural and social activities at least were identified.
Adolescents working in the research point out parks as negatively impacting places and mention also road and air transportation terminals. Aire describes her perception on this finding: “In Transportation Terminal women are used for smuggling, they are misused” (Aire, session 22, October 28, 2004)
For NEF team that negative impact means an element showing that woman, due to her own condition, is handicapped in front of men deeds in those same places and therefore, to reach them may suppose own exposition to stressing situations altering their behavioral patterns.
In the same manner was built the consolidated report on impact that neighborhood conflicts have on woman life. Among remarks of NEF members aggressive responses to rumors were highlighted, and fear in front of possibility of being attacked. “When we go out, we don’t feel safe because woman has more risk to be abused in the street or psychologically mistreated” (Impulsiva, session 23, November 2, 2004)
Once identified neighborhood problems along with its impact on female life, the team drew a community work proposal meeting most urgent needs for strengthening protective factors associated to female violence along with its consequent incidence on school life.

NEF process evaluation

Through each one of stages and through our sceneries, the corresponding analysis was performed in order to track personal experiences and how each adolescent taking a part in the research recorded new learning step by step, behavioral changes and needed engagements implying to become aware about the magnitude of female school violence phenomenon.
A shallow evaluation was useful to redirect the used research tools and assess strategies effectiveness through different stages of the investigation, achieving a high accuracy to identification of feeble or strong behavioral facets, confirming risk and protection factors effect, making clear besides the way how institution must take on preventive and intervention means in front of female school violence.
It was verified that Family Education Nucleus are an efficient tool for understanding functioning and dynamic of female school violence, because by one hand, they propitiate an approach to phenomenon from outlooks proposed by the model, and by the other hand, they promote causal elements and risk and protection factors interpretation letting know proactive forms for conflicts solution.
Definitively evaluation was a valuable resource for research process because through it was allowed redirection of agendas, measurement of the impact of tools used in NEF members’ behavior, realization on meeting goals and confirmation about the right direction for correctly solving proposed questions along the project design.

To identify female school violence in NEF framework is one of proposed goals to present research, and what was given to find through different sceneries and stages is that this phenomenon shows its own dynamic based on risk factors linked to each one of sceneries. Scholars such as Oleos (1998) and Trianes (2000) have made superficial mention in their studies to aggressive adolescents behavior but emphasizing on psychological violence use discarding their allowance to use physical violence fitting with adolescents’ characteristics; instead, this research showed how adolescents assume behaviors identified as violent ones, and in conflict situations unsolved through dialog, they showed physical aggressions towards their opponent, giving judgement means for predicting that physical violence is always at hand as an additional way for differences solution between pairs.
According to Pinzon et al. (2004) in those violent incidents a set of incidents occurs, possibly identified with “building of identity” (p.60) and fondness search, unaware about a different way for getting it but the violence path as a life choice. At least in five of studied events this factor played a key role because, as described by adolescents through their stories, the need of affection and progenitor absence led them to bear hard situations that branded own behavior when been exposed to maltreatment, abandonment and frustration.
In the matter, this research allowed to verify that when the affective load is very high and momentary circumstances are suitable, a confrontation may appear similar to violence; this was evident as for school environment and for familiar one.
Another goal bringing the team near the phenomenon interpretation was adolescents’ behavior analysis in violence situations. In that order of ideas it was confirmed that though school violence is present in everyday school life, there are key traits making difference between adolescents’ behavior in general and adolescents’ under aggressive events.
According to Jimeno (1996) psychological violence is widely used by young women; young men prefer physical aggression. Olweis (1998) thinks that students use a set of menace and aggression behaviors in order to punish the others, going from unfair jokes to damage onto properties, crossing physical or verbal graze.
This research moved forward through different sceneries to the acknowledgement of the most generalized use of physical violence by adolescents, hurting not only the school itself but also the environment and the neighborhood life because of use of school outskirts such as parks and alleys for hitting each other.
The study showed, besides, the existence of school violence as a phenomenon in which adolescents take part, the dynamic of appearance of aggressive events is essentially the same, what is different is the way how each one of the sexes assumes violent behavior in face to conflict; for example young girls indistinctly use psychological and physical aggression. Quarrels usually start through verbal maltreatment finishing in physical contact; they hit each other, or pull their hair or use own nails as an arm for scratching face or arms, and in extreme events they throw themselves to floor or hurt with feet or fists.
Another research proposed goal is the analysis of female school violence appearance and consequences from family, school and neighborhood environments through NEF model, becoming evident that in each one of these situations risk factors having a bearing on violent behaviors acquisition among IED adolescents where study was carried out come together.
Family structure became an analysis referent; genograms prepared by NEF members displayed the way how relationships into home environment are lived, and at the same time the role played by extended family in youth rearing was established.
This is a specially important fact because it implied analyzing in depth the existence of authority patterns fitting with a patriarchal culture and characterized, according to Zamudio, Toledo and Watenberg (1999) by a dominance/ subordination relationship where the most important thing is personal or group interests confrontation sustaining gender relationships and generational transmissions exclusive for families in a high level of conflict and ambivalence in power practice. Here there is a good analysis element for understanding reasons for children to aggressively solve their conflicts.
But nor school is far from this kind of circumstances. It was found in studied events that though an educational work is performed, its exercise can become exaggerated, what, for Estrada (2001) can be a sign of the way how teachers and school itself, through open or hidden curriculum application, pass on given messages constituent of a particular culture in front of the way how we must act in roles assignment that consequently fix behavioral specific patterns for women as men what in gender relationships can become a sign of risk factors at school when they are incorrectly managed.
According to Jimeno (1996) authority patterns also play a key role in social control management. The school, therefore, through its educational work, has to provide students with the necessary self control mechanisms through pedagogical practices observation and living together rulings accomplishment, into everyday school life organization.
In a similar manner neighborhood environment plays a key role in strengthening violence culture. Here is experienced a series of circumstances pointing to the presence of risk factors going beyond the rest of social spaces like family and school. NEF adolescents aren’t far from happenings lived in the neighborhood, so, in recognition work it was found that they have to stay always defensively because at any moment it is possible become a victim in an attack performed for some inhabitant in this sector.
In a different view for the research, NEF team delayed on observation of female school violence which, according to Toro (2001) consists on a remoteness from proposed rulings feeding a set of inciting events and allowing adolescents be always on the defensive, waiting for the right moment for action.
Into female school violence dynamic, time also plays a key role. The hours amount disposable for adolescents in order to set up relationships with pairs and act inside the school environment can signify some stress when solving differences and conflicts with mates. In this respect Zamudio et al. consider that its use and appropriation “is reproducing social roles building”, giving to each one a role and a behavior depending on the role they have to play in society.
What NEF found in the matter and in this educational behavior was that though there are programmed activities through the daily work, they make the best use of rest hours or daily classes, ending in performing confrontations apt to lead to quarrel and aggression.
When actors face aggressive actions derived from behavior embraced in generalized violence incidents into the school space, it was found that mainly in school scenery adolescent protagonists use a process that Olwens (1996) has named as victimization where different restriction mechanisms are used in order to attract “victims” and incite to a quarrel.
The subsequent analysis proved that among kids participating in the research this procedure is valid and used when conflict rises from rumor or love argument by a classmate, very strong reasons as considered valid for confrontation because it’s considered as a way for recovering good name.
In front of an increasing violent facts declaration by adolescents, the institution will have to adopt preventive and intervention means leading to promote a healthy and free school environment where violence is absent, and will have to put in action “une pédagogie qui lutte contre la violence immédiate” (some pedagogy fighting against adjoining violence) as Debardieux states (1993, pg. 134) looking for a learning of suitable forms for conflict solution.
An explanation to female violence phenomenon fitting with NEF research can be found into pattern of circles of influence proposed by Powell, Mercy, Crosby, Dahlberg, and Simon (1999, pg.185): “calls attention to the diversity of causes of potential sites for prevention activities… This tries to explain factors linked to violence and eventual interventions on it, beginning from a study of their causes, but giving them some order, starting from individual and progressively advancing to macro-social conceptions and features.
Through the research it was found that in each scenery, apt to put on a level with those proposed by these authors, there are particular situations making predictable that adolescent girls acquire aggressive behavior patterns that afterwards will transfer to school, what make needed to take prevention and intervention means trying to diminish the impact that the phenomenon is producing into school environment.


Female school violence is a phenomenon characterized by presence and recurrence of aggressive events along with active participation of adolescent girls who violently solve their differences with pairs changing the school work into propitious scenery for quarrels ending in physical and verbal aggression into spaces bordering school where usually some other students or neighborhood inhabitants take their part encouraging or motivating them.
It’s possible to state that female school violence is a phenomenon having been present into IED educational ambient with its own dynamic and with a negative impact on the school environment, and therefore, meeting of proposed goals for this research has been fully reached although through its development new questions appear that may be faced into a deep study on this issue.
A first question refers to the way how adolescents exercise psychological violence along with their involvement into own integral rearing, and also into school dynamic.
Second issue to be made deeper refers to form how school has had to assume step by step functions put aside by other social institutions as family, church and state. In this work school hasn’t counted on such institutions support in order to act on adolescents’ integral formation and has been obliged to face the burden of maintenance of healthy relationships into the school environment with its consequent projection on community and society life.
Female violence phenomenon is a real fact coming into school life and directly affecting interpersonal relationships and educational environment, making it tense and scarcely propitious for maintaining healthy relationships with pairs and the other members of school community.
Thus, it’s recognized risk and protection factors existence that make predictable timely and efficient adoption of intervention and protection means which can arise from projects design applied to each scenery looking for neutralizing negative effects generated by reactive behavior patterns for conflicts solution.
There are also differences and similarities in adolescents’ behavior facing aggression events and, although violent situation dynamic is the same, the reaction and response way to the provocation is different, including mechanisms used for a response.
Building through sceneries and stages offered a double look in terms of understanding participants’ relationship with their most important relational spaces where female violence analysis was deep and specialized once and again in a multi-leveled way under look of influential circles.
Applied research method and focus for facing study became the best intervention and prevention tools, because easing spaces for reflection through stories, testimonies, life stories scripts. Moments for sharing and listening experiences became key methodological mechanisms for getting attitude shifts in front of conflict.
Gender and power relationships framed under patriarchal culture influence, social imaginaries on woman role in relationship with her femininity and her behavior and access chances to the work life, for this case in particular, are decisive factor and aggressive behaviors indicator, like a reaction, when these impact woman’s life with a propitious trend to male sex preference.
Educational agents are summoned to analyzing, studying, knowing and caring in due time and efficiently all phenomena related to female violence, looking for prevention means leading to diminish their impact and recurrence, not only inside school but also on those elements possibly having a bearing on personal, family, and community life.
It’s advised therefore, a design, organization and application of a school violence observatory as a transversal project attached to Institutional Educational Project, looking for aggression incidents attention inside the institution but also on those becoming a permanent reflection space, in search of effective and timely solutions, making decisions, conflicts solution and democratic participation.
Finally, into the handbook for living together must be reflected not only the existence of harmonic relationships between both sexes but also indicated that into educational environment in general, equality and respect to individual differences and particularly a fair and equitable treatment must be present.


Alerta por aumento de delincuencia femenina (“Autoridades advierten” (Mayo 18 de 2004)), Bogotá. El Tiempo.

Bonilla, E. y Rodríguez, P. (1997) Más allá del dilema de los métodos. Bogotá Librería universidad Nacional

Castañeda, E. (1999). La educación secundaria un presente para construir. En Instituto para la investigación educativa y el desarrollo pedagógico IDEP; Violencia en la escuela. (Págs. 43-49). Bogotá: Prensa moderna.

Cajiao, F. (1999). Maltrato, Violencia y estructura Escolar, En Instituto para la investigación educativa y el desarrollo pedagógico IDEP. Violencia en la escuela (Págs. 25 –33). Bogotá: prensa moderna.

Deas, M. y Gaitán, F. (1995) Dos ensayos especulativos sobre la violencia en Colombia. Teorías de la agresión. Tercer mundo editores. Santa fe de Bogotá.

Debarbieux, E. (1993) La violence dans la classe. ESF èditeur. París

Debarbieux, E. (2001), Violencia escolar: un problema mundial. [Versión electrónica] [Documento electrónico] recuperado 16-10-2003 disponible en

Debarbieux, E. (2004) Violencia escolar: un problema mundial [Versión electrónica] recuperado 12-08-2005, disponible en

Estrada, M. (1997) Los estudios de género en Colombia: Entre los límites y las posibilidades. Revista nómadas. No 6, 32 – 46

Estrada, M. (2001) Los fragmentos del calidoscopio. Una propuesta teórico –metodológica para el análisis cualitativo de las relaciones de género en la escuela. Revista Nómadas; No 14, 10 – 21

Fernández, P. (2002) 45% de Jóvenes ha Presenciado Actos de Violencia en Colegios [Documento electrónico] recuperado abril 5 de 2003 disponible en

García, S.B. (2003) (“Los Núcleos de Educación Familiar y la Prevención de las Violencias Difusas en Contextos Educativos”). Bogotá

García, M. (2003, Mayo 16).Conflictos de niños. El Tiempo. P 14
Institución Educativa Distrital Pablo Neruda. Diagnostico Institucional. (1999 - 2004). Bogotá.

Institución Educativa Distrital Pablo Neruda (2003). Actas del comité de convivencia escolar. Bogotá.

Institución Educativa Distrital Pablo Neruda (2003) Diagnóstico institucional. Bogotá.
Jimeno, M. y Roldán, I. (1996) Las sombras arbitrarias. Violencia y autoridad en Colombia. Bogotá: Universidad Nacional

Mattaini, Twyman, Chind y Lee (1996) Youth Violence. En Mattaini, M.; Thyer, B (Eds): Findign solutions to social problems. Washinton, D.C, EEUU: American Psychological Association.

Olweus, D. (1998). Conductas de acoso y amenaza entre escolares. Madrid. Ediciones Morata

Parra, R., González, A., Moritz, O., Blandón, A., y Bustamante, R. (1998). La escuela violenta. Bogotá. Tercer Mundo Editores.

Pinzón, E., Bohórquez L., Riveros, O., García P y Zipaquirá, E., (2004) Axolotl. Trayectos y aconteceres. Un proyecto sobre violencia y escuela. Universidad Pedagógica Nacional. Bogotá Antropos Ltda.

Pouncet, M. (1996) La escuela como agente de reproducción de las diferencias y desigualdades entre género: una propuesta para el cambio. En Congreso de sociología

Granada. Ministerio del Trabajo y asuntos sociales. Barcelona
Powell, K., Mercy, J., Crosby. A., Dahlberg. L. y Simon. T. (1999) Public Health Models of Violence and violence Prevention. En Kurzt, L; Turpin, J (Eds): Encyclopedia of violence, peace & conflitct. Vol. 2. New York: Academic Press

Rodríguez, R., Gil, J. y García, E. (1996). Metodología de la investigación cualitativa. Málaga, Aljibe.

Schwartz, H. y Jacobs, J. (1984) Sociología cualitativa, métodos para la construcción de la
Thornton, T.N., Craft, C.A., Dahlberg, L.L., Lynch, B.S., Baer, K. Best (2000) [Documento electrónico] Practices of Youth Violence Prevention: A Sourcebook for Community Action. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control; disponible en

Toro, M. (2001). Atmósfera socio-moral en las escuelas bogotanas desde una perspectiva de género. Revista Nómadas,. No 14. 35 – 49).

Trianes, M. (2000).La violencia en contextos escolares. Málaga: Ediciones Aljibe.

Vargas, J. (1999) La escuela y las redes sociales de apoyo En Instituto para la investigación educativa y el desarrollo pedagógico IDEP, En El final del miedo. (págs, 161 – 167). Bogotá. Prensa moderna.

Villa, de la M. (1998) Jóvenes, violencia y tribalidad urbana como forma emergente de identidad difusa [versión electrónica] recuperada 12 de octubre de 2006. Disponible en

Zamudio, L., Toledo, A, y Wartenberg; L. (1999) Utilización del tiempo y socialización de género. Centro de investigaciones sobre dinámica social. Serie 1, cuaderno 1 Universidad Externado de Colombia. Bogotá.

Read also

> Summary
> Bullying in schools: Predictors and profiles. Results of the Portuguese Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children Survey
> Impact de la sportification de 72 enfants de 8-9 ans sur leurs conduites motrices agressives au cours d’un jeu.
> Le sport dans la cité : Approche critique d’un traitement préventif de la violence
> Young Offenders in Prison – perceptions of mental health disorders and their treatment: a qualitative study

<< Back